Angiolysis: destruction of the integrity of a blood vessel


Antiangiogenic: a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels


Apoptosis: cell death or self-destruction


Cadherin: Integral membrane proteins involved in calcium dependent cell adhesion. There are over 100 different cadherins, grouped according to their adhesion site and function. N-cadherin is a classical cadherin (primary adhesion sequence is HAV) and is also named Cad-2 or neural cadherin.  See Cadherins brochure


Cell adhesion: the binding of one cell to another cell, surface or matrix, involving protein molecules at the surface of cells


Cell signaling: the transfer of information from one cell to another


Clinical development: the stage of development of a new drug in which clinical trials are conducted with humans. See Clinical Trials Factsheet


Complication: a secondary condition or disease that may develop in the course of a primary disease or condition, generally as a result of the treatment or as a result of progression of the disease


Efficacy: the ability of a drug to control or cure an illness


First or second line therapy: the first choice of treatment for a particular disease or condition, which if not effective or produces unacceptable side effects, is followed by a second choice of treatment, etc.


Hand-foot syndrome: also known as Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE). A debilitating side effect that can occur with certain chemotherapy, characterized by redness, tenderness, and possibly peeling of the palms and soles of the feet, which may be accompanied by numbness or tingling


Hepatoblastoma: a type of liver tumor


Medulloblastoma: a type of brain tumor


Molecularly-targeted therapy: a drug that targets specific molecular differences between tumors and normal tissue, and attempts to treat the tumor while leaving normal tissue undamaged


Mosaicism: ‘tumor mosaicism’ describes the intermingling of tumor cells among normal epithelial cells in tumor blood vessels


Neuroblastoma: tumor involving nerve tissue


Neurotoxicity: toxicity of a drug to nervous tissue (both brain and peripheral nerves)


Osteosarcoma: a type of bone tumor


Ototoxicity: toxicity to the auditory nerve, which is responsible for the sense of hearing and balance


Side effect: secondary and usually adverse effect of a treatment


Treatment resistance: the failure of a disease or condition to respond or remit following treatment